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[Udemy] virology 4 you

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What you’ll learn

  • Nature of virus as etiological agent
  • viral taxonomy
  • viral replication
  • pathogenesis of viral ailments
  • viral genetics
  • mechanism of an infection


  • curiosity in studying


on this course we discuss historical past of discovery virus construction virus classifications  virus multiplication  virus pathogenesis zoonosis some essential viruses hepatitis

Rabies is a vaccine preventable, zoonotic, viral illness. As soon as medical signs seem, rabies is. Vaccinating canines is probably the most

value efficient technique for stopping rabies in folks. publish

publicity prophylaxis Put up publicity prophylaxis(PEP) is the instant remedy of a chunk sufferer after rabies publicity.  This prevents virus entry into

the central nervous system, which ends up in imminent demise. PEP consists of:•Intensive washing and native remedy of the chunk wound or

scratch as quickly as attainable after a suspected publicity;•a course of potent and efficient rabies vaccine and the administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG), if indicated

Laboratory analysis of viral infections  v1-Sampling

2-Virus isolation

3-Nucleic acid based mostly strategies

polymerase chain response

sequencingv4-Microscopy based mostly strategies immunofluorescence Electron microscopy 5-Host antibody detection 6-Hemagglutination assay

sampling temperatures (often 4 °C) to protect the virus and forestall bacterial or fungal progress. Generally a number of websites might also be sampled.

Kinds of samples embody the next    All kinds of samples can be utilized for virologic testing. The kind of pattern despatched to the laboratory usually relies on the kind of viral an infection being recognized and the take a look at required  Correct sampling method is important to keep away from potential pre-analytical errors .For instance and saved at acceptable    saved at acceptable temperatures (often 4 °C) to protect the virus and forestall bacterial or fungal progress.  1.Nasopharyngeal swab

2.Blood  pores and skin. Sputum, gargles and bronchial washings .Urine .Semen Faces  .Cerebrospinal fluid   .Tissues biopsies or autopsy

Viruses are sometimes remoted from the preliminary affected person pattern.   This permits the virus pattern to be grown into bigger portions and permits a bigger variety of assessments to be run on them. That is notably essential for samples that comprise new or uncommon viruses for which diagnostic assessments should not but developed  Many viruses will be grown in cell tradition within the lab.

To do that, the virus pattern is combined with cells, a course of known as adsorption, after which the cells change into contaminated and produce extra copies of the virus   Though completely different viruses usually solely develop in sure forms of cells, there are cells that assist the expansion of a giant number of viruses and are a superb start line, for instance, the African monkey kidney cell line (Vero cells), human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (HEp-2). One technique of figuring out whether or not the cells are efficiently  replicating the virus is to verify for a change in cell morphology or for the presence of cell demise utilizing a microscope  Different viruses might require various strategies for progress such because the inoculation of embryonated rooster eggs

(e.g. avian influenza viruses

[4]) or the intracranial inoculation of virus utilizing new child mice (e.g. lyssaviruses

[Nucleic acid based methods

Molecular techniques are the most specific and sensitive diagnostic tests

They are capable of detecting either the whole viral genome or parts of the viral genome.

In the past nucleic acid tests have mainly been used as a secondary test to confirm positive serological results However, as they become cheaper and more automated, they are increasingly becoming the primary tool for diagnostics  Polymerase chain reaction[

Detection of viral RNA and DNA genomes can be performed using polymerase chain reaction. This technique makes many copies of the virus genome using virus-specific probes. Variations of PCR such as nested reverse transcriptase PCR and real time PCR can also be used to determine viral loads in patient serum. This is often used to monitor treatment success in HIV cases. Sequencing[

Main article: Whole genome sequencing

Sequencing is the only diagnostic method that will provide the full sequence of a virus genome. Hence, it provides the most information about very small differences between two viruses that would look the same using other diagnostic tests

Viral replication is the formation of biological viruses during the infection process in the target host cells.  Viruses must first get into the cell before viral replication can occur.

Through the generation of abundant copies of its genome and packaging these copies, the virus continues infecting new hosts. Replication between viruses is greatly varied and depends on the type of genes involved in them Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus while most RNA viruses develop solely in cytoplasm. viruses multiply only in living cells. The host cell must provide the energy and synthetic machinery and the low- molecular-weight precursors for the synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids

virus  life cycle




4.Transcription / mRNA production,

5.Synthesis of virus components,

6.Virion assembly and

Viral replication of a bacteriophage[3]

7- Launch (Liberation Stage).

Who this course is for:

  • pupil research or plan to check science drugs dentistry veterinary drugs

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